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Celebrate Freedom 2001 - Biographies

Celebrate Freedom 2001 Speaker Biographies

Harry C. Aderholt, Brigadier General, U.S. Air Force, Retired, was born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1920. He served during World War II in North Africa and Italy as a B-17 and C-47 pilot from 1943 to1945. During the Korean War, General Aderholt commanded Detachment II of the 21st Troop Carrier Squadron which was responsible for all covert air support to Special Operations in the theater. Det. II also played a major role in the evacuation of Marines from the Chosin Reservoir. Following his Korean tour, General Aderholt was assigned as the Command of the Air Training Branch of the CIA. During this period, the tactics for low level night aircraft penetrations against the most sophisticated air defense systems were developed and tested. Following a tour at Headquarters USAF Europe, where he served in the Directorate of Plans as an unconventional warfare planning staff officer, Aderholt returned to Washington with a second assignment to CIA as Air Operations Planner. In January, 1960, in Okinawa, he was instrumental in developing the airfield complex in Laos known as Lima sites. These fields were used throughout Southeast Asia as support sites for special warfare operations as “Jolly Green” helicopter forward staging bases for rescue and recovery operations in Laos and North Vietnam. From 1960 to 1962, he was commander of the Tibet Airlift Operation, then served as a Special Air Advisor to the Commander of the U.S. Air Force Special air Warfare Center at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, 1962-1964. From there he became Commander of the famed 1st Air Commando Wing at Hurlburt Field, Florida. During the Vietnam War General Aderholt was assigned to the 6200th Material Wing in the Philippines and also the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam. In 1966, he was selected to activate, organize, and later command the 56th Air Commando Wing at Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. In 1968, he was reassigned to the U.S. Air Force Special Air Warfare Center, later designated U.S. Air Force Special Operations, at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. General Aderholt returned to Thailand in 1970 for two years as chief of the Air Force Advisory Group. He retired in 1972, but was recalled to active duty in 1973 and assigned as deputy commander, U.S. Military Assistance Command, Thailand and deputy chief, Joint U.S. Military Advisory Group, Thailand. In 1974, he organized and implemented the Cambodian Airlift. He became commander of both organizations in 1975, retiring later that year. Since that time the General has lectured at the USAF Special Opeations School, on low intensity warfare and became one of the founders, and past presidents of the Air Commando Association. He serves as the president of McKoskie/Threshold Foundation, which with the ACA has shipped more than $300 million worth of medical supplies, clothing, etc., to Asia, Central America, and other areas of the world since 1962.
Sam Juan Antonio left the Acoma Reservation in New Mexico in 1940 to join the U.S. Army. Following basic training, Mr. Antonio was placed with the 200th Coastal Artillery Unit. In late 1941, he was stationed at Clark Field in the Philippines and was present during the Japanese bombing of the Islands. Following the fall of Bataan in May, 1942, word got out that the Japanese were taking prisoners, Mr. Antonio and some fellow soldiers took to the ocean and swam to Corregidor, which was still held by Americans forces. Then on May 6, 1942, Corregidor was surrendered to the Japanese and Sam Antonio was taken prisoner along with the other U.S. troops. Later, he was among 1,000 men who were sent on the Hokka Maru to Korea and then on to the prison camp Mukden in Manchuria. Mr. Antonio spent three and a half years there working in the textile mills and farming soybeans. As punishment for striking a guard he once had to stand at attention for 24 hours with a bayonet at his throat. In August, 1945, the sound of bombs meant they were soon to be free again, but Sam and a friend could not wait. In an attempt to escape he went over an electric fence and badly burned his hands as a result. He no longer has finger prints. Following release, Mr. Antonio returned home to Acoma and was finally recognized 40 years later when he was presented with a Bronze Star, with a “V” for valor.
Gordon R. Beem, Major, U.S. Air Force, Retired, was raised in Portland, Maine having moved from his Ohio birthplace. He left high school during his senior year to enlist in the Navy and saw brief sea duty in the Pacific at the end of World War II. Upon release from active duty in July, 1946, Major Beem returned to Maine and entered Bowdoin College under the G.I. Bill. He received a B.A. degree in February, 1950. He was active in athletics, a Dean’s list student, and a James Bowdoin Scholar. Following a brief time in the insurance business, the advent of the Korean War meant Major Beem faced recall to active duty in the Navy. He chose to enlist in the U.S. Air Force. After he served with the 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing in Korea, 1951-1952, and thereafter at the Pentagon, he made a career commitment to the Air Force. In 1955, he re-enlisted as a Technical Sergeant and was sent to Germany. In 1957, he received a direct commission to First Lieutenant in the Medical Service Corps ans was transferred to an Air Force Hospital near Cambridge, England to begin his work as a hospital administrator. In 1961, he was appointed Regular Officer, rose to the rank of Major and attended Yale University under Air Force sponsorship, receiving the Master of Public Health degree. He culminated his military career as a Planning Officer on the staff of the Air Force Surgeon General, retiring with nearly 25 years total service on January 1, 1970. Over the next 20 years Major Beem held positions as Executive or Chief Operating Officer of health care facilities in Connecticut, New York, North Carolina, Illinois, and Michigan. Major Beem retired from the healthcare profession in 1990 and now resides with his wife, Jeanne, in Asheville, North Carolina.
Frederick C. Blesse, Major General, U.S. Air Force, Retired, was born in the Panama Canal Zone on 22 August, 1921, to a Military family and a father who was a General in the U.S. Army Medical Corps. He graduated from West Point in 1945 with a degree in Science and Engineering. After graduation he chose the Army Air Corps and spent 28 years actively flying fighter aircraft. Major General “Boots” Blesse attended the National War College, class of 1966, and also received his Masters Degree in International Relations from George Washington University in 1966. During two combat tours in Korea he flew 67 missions in the P-51, 35 in the F-80, and 121 in the F-86. While assigned to the 334 Squadron of the 4th Fighter Group, flying the F-86, he shot down nine Mig-15's, one LA-9 aircraft, probably destroyed another Mig-15, and damaged three other Mig-15's. When he returned to the United States in 1952 Major General Blesse was the leading Jet Ace. In 1955, at the World Wide Air Force Fighter Weapons Meet, flying an F-86, he won all six trophies offered for individual performance. That feat has never been equaled. He wrote a Tactics Manual, “No Guts, No Glory,” in 1955 that was used in the Air Force for 25 years. In Vietnam, where he served two combat tours, he flew a total of 157 missions in the F-4, 108 of them over North Vietnam. During his 30 year career in the Air Force, Major General Blesse received a total of 36 decorations including the Distinguished Service Cross-two Distinguished Service Medals, two Silver Stars, two Legions of Merit, six Distinguished Flying Crosses, 21 Air Medals, and the Purple Heart. Upon retirement in 1975, he had about 7000 hours fighter time, 3300 of which were in the F-86. He accumulated 350 hours combat time. Major General Blesse worked as a consultant for Grumman Corporation and wrote an autobiography, Check Six, A Fighter Pilot Looks Back, following his retirement from the U.S. Air Force. He currently lives in Melbourne, Florida.
Philip L. Bolté, Brigadier General, U.S. Army, Retired, commanded Armor units from platoon to brigade, with combat service in Korea and Viet Nam, finally serving as commander of the Army’s only Armor training brigade. During his thirty years of service in the United States Army, Brigadier General Bolté served as Program Manager, Fighting Vehicle Systems Development, where he directed the latter stages of development of the Bradley Fighting Vehicles and as Assistant Project Manager (Tank Main Armament Development) he directed weapon and ammunition development for the Abrams Main Battle Tank. His service also includes positions as Assistant for Combat Material to the Assistant Secretary of the Army, Deputy Commander for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command, and a post on the Army Staff in communications-electronics research and development. His military decorations and awards include the Army Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star (with one oak leaf cluster), Purple Heart (with one oak leaf cluster), Legion of Merit (with three oak leaf clusters), Combat Infantryman Badge (two awards), and senior parachutist badge. He also holds the Vietnamese National Order (Fifth Class) and three awards of the Gallantry Cross with Palm. Currently, General Bolté lives with his wife Lorel in West Union, South Carolina, writes and consults in the defense area, and serves as President of the U.S. Calvary Association and First Vice President of the Council on America’s Military Past (CAMP).
Margaret Lynn Brown, Assistant Professor of History at Brevard College, is conducting an oral history project of Korean War Veterans. The study, which grew out of a classroom project, will be added to the collection at the Center for the Study of War and Society. A PhD from the University of Kentucky, Brown is the author of The Wild East: A Biography of the Great Smoky Mountains. She teaches both Environmental History and U.S. History Since 1945.
B.G. Burkett, a military researcher, was co-chairman of the Texas Vietnam Memorial with President George Bush as Honorary Chairman. Mr. Burkett has been the object of an award-winning segment on ABC’s 20/20, as well as much acclaimed articles in Texas Monthly and Reader’s Digest. He is a graduate of Vanderbilt University and the University of Tennessee. He served in Vietnam with the 199th Light Infantry Brigade, and was awarded the Bronze Star Medal, Vietnamese Honor Medal, and Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm.
Lewis H. Carlson is the retired Director of American Studies and professor of history at Western Michigan University. For over thirty years he taught courses on twentieth-century American history, with a special emphasis on oral and social history. He has won his university’s Alumni Award for Teaching Excellence, and he has been a guest lecturer in Germany at the John F. Kennedy Institute of the Free University in Berlin and at the University of Pasau. He has also lectured extensively at various other German universities, as well as the Russian State University in Moscow. His seven published books have covered such subjects as race, sports, popular culture, and prisoners of war. His most recent book, We Were Each Other’s Prisoners: An Oral History of World War II and American and German Prisoners of War, was published in 1997. He is presently working on an oral history of Korean War POWs, which is scheduled for release in January, 2002.
Gerald E. Chappell and his twin brother, Richard G. Chappell, were prepared by Fleet Marine Force Training Company 45 as corpsmen for their tour of duty with the Marines in the 25th draft in Korea. They joined the 2nd Battalion (Fox and Easy Companies) of the Fighting Fifth Marine Regiment of the First Marine Division in mid-October, 1952 as the regiment went back on the MLR (Main Line of Resistance) to participate in what had become a positional or “limited war.” Much of Chappell’s presentation about the role of corpsmen in front line bunker/outpost and patrol duty (late 1952), and follow up battalion aid station duty (early 1953) is drawn from their letter record as published in Corpsmen: Letters From Korea (Kent State University Press, 2000).
Edward M. Coffman, a Kentuckian who earned all of his degrees at the University of Kentucky, served two years as an infantry officer during the Korean War but did not see combat. He started his teaching career at the University of Memphis and then spent 31 years at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He also served as a visiting professor at Kansas State University, West Point, the Air Force Academy, the Army Command and General Staff College, and the Army War College. He is the author of The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I, The Hilt of the Sword: The Career of Peyton C. March, and The Old Army: A Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898. He is currently working on a social history of the Regular Army from 1898 to 1941.
Harley J. Coon joined the U.S. Army in 1948. He was sent to Camp Brickenridge, KY, to the 101st Airborne, known as the ‘Screaming Eagles.’ But later that year he was sent to Yokohama, Japan and assigned to B Troop, 8th Regiment of the 1st Calvary Division. At a military supply depot in Shinagawa, Japan, B Troop oversaw the return of a lend-leased battleship being returned to the U.S. government from the Russians. In March, 1949, the company was disbanded and Mr. Coon was transferred to B Company of the 35th Regiment, 25th Infantry Division stationed at Camp Otsu, Japan. While at Camp Otsu, he witnessed first hand repatriated Japanese POWs released by the Russians. Soon after training in winter maneuvers at Camp MacGill, Japan he was sent to Pusan. Mr. Coon was involved in combat action at Tajon and Nogeun-ri in 1950. He and five other soldiers were captured by the Chinese on November 27, 1950 at Ipsop, North Korea. They were marched to various camps before ending up at Camp 5, which housed 4,000-5,000 prisoners, in Puck’tong in January, 1951. On August 31, 1953, Harley Coon was released after 33 months and four days of imprisonment. After the war, that same year he married Sylvia and went on to become a successful businessman, but did not talk about his experience for 30 years. In 1994, he was inducted into the Ohio State Veterans Hall of Fame. Mr. Coon is the past President of the National Korean War EX-Prisoner of War Association and the current National President of the Korean War Veterans Association.
Conrad C. Crane, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, Retired, is a graduate of the Military Academy and has attended Airborne School, the Command and General Staff College, and the U.S. Army War College. He received his master’s and doctoral degrees from Stanford University. He is author of Bombs, Cities, and Civilians: American Airpower Strategy in World War II (1993) and American Airpower Strategy in Korea (2000). His articles have appeared in the Journal of Military History, The Historian, Mid America Aerospance Historian, Oxford Companion to American Military History, The Journal of Strategic Studies, and the anthology World War II in Europe: The Final Years. Lieutenant Colonel Crane is a former Professor of History at the United States Military Academy at West Point and is currently Research Professor of Military Strategy at the Strategic Studies Institute of the Army War College.

E. Wayne Cutler, a specialist in Jacksonian era political and economic history, holds a full-time research appointment as editor and director of the Correspondence of James K. Polk. He regularly offers undergraduate lecture courses on Jacksonian America and provides training in documentary editing for graduate students serving as research assistants on the Polk Project. He did his doctoral studies at the University of Texas at Austin under William H. Goetzmann, winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Exploration and Empire. Professor Cutler began his professional work as an editorial associate on the Southwestern Historical Quarterly; and upon completion of his dissertation on William H. Crawford he moved to the University of Kentucky as assistant editor of the Papers of Henry Clay. In 1975, he became editor of the Polk Project and served as an associate professor of history at Vanderbilt University. In 1987, Professor Cutler joined the Andrew Jackson and Andrew Johnson editorial projects in forming the Tennessee Presidents Center at the University of Tennessee. Also, he currently serves as director of the Tennessee Presidents Trust.
William D. Dannenmaier is a native of St. Louis, Missouri. He graduated from Harris Teachers’ College in St. Louis in 1952. That same year Mr. Dannenmaier enlisted in the Army and served as a radioman and scout with the 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Division, in Korea. The 15th Infantry Regiment fought in the eight-day battle for Outpost Harry, believed by many to have been the bloodiest battle of the Korean War. After the war he returned home to St. Louis where he completed a Masters Degree and Doctorate at Washington University with an emphasis on educational/psychological testing and statistics. Mr. Dannenmaier spent twenty-five years teaching at the university level and in 1980, went to work for the U.S. Army as a quality controller of test development and major research projects. In 1995, he began writing a memoir of enlisted life as an infantryman based on and quoting from letters written to his sister during the war. He wrote the book, We Were Innocents (University of Illinois Press, 1999), to accurately describe life as it was for an infantryman during the Korean War. The book has been well received by reviewers and readers alike. Currently, Mr. Dannenmaier lives in Cumberland Furnace, Tennessee and is happily married with eight children and ten grandchildren.
Raymond G. Davis, General, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired, first served in World War II where he participated in the capture and defense of Guadalcanal, the Eastern New Guinea and Cape Gloucester campaigns, and the Peleliu operation, in which he earned the Navy Cross. In October, 1944 he was promoted to Lt.Colonel. In Korea, Lt.Colonel Davis commanded the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, from August to December 1950. During that same period, he earned the Nation’s highest decoration for heroism, the Medal of Honor, during the 1st Marine Division’s historic fight to break out of the Chosin Reservoir area. The award was presented by President Harry Truman in a White House ceremony on November 24, 1952. He also twice earned the Silver Star by exposing himself to heavy enemy fire while leading his men in the face of strong enemy opposition and the received the Legion Merit with Combat “V” for exceptionally meritorious conduct and professional skill in welding the 1st Battalion into a highly effective combat team. Later, as Executive Officer of the 7th Marines, Lt. Colonel Davis earned the Bronze Star with Combat “V” for his part in rebuilding the regiment after the Chosin Reservoir Campaign. He returned from Korea in June, 1951. After being promoted to Major General in 1966, General Davis was ordered to Vietnam in 1968 and served briefly as Deputy Commanding General, Provisional Corps. He then became Commanding General of the 3rd Marine Division until April, 1969. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, as well as three personal decorations by the Vietnamese Government. President Nixon nominated and the Senate approved Lt. General Davis for appointment to the grade of general and reassignment to the position of Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. He received his fourth star on March 12, 1971. General Davis retired from the U.S. Marine Corps, March 31, 1972.
W.L. ‘Jack’ Doerty, Colonel, U.S. Air Force, Retired, began his military career at age 17 with college preflight training which terminated when V-J day ended World War II. In February, 1949, he graduated from a unique class of Aviation Cadets with flight training in both the P-51 and F-80. Assignment to Korea came in January, 1951, following graduation from the Air Force Fighter Weapons School. He flew 62 combat missions preceding a 30-day forward air controller assignment with the 9th Infantry Division, Republic of Korea Army. (Lt.) Doerty was captured during a major Chinese offensive and spent 27 months as a POW, during which time his weight dropped below 100 pounds. After release from prison camp he elected to remain on active duty along with some of the other survivors. From 1958-1960, he had an exchange tour in England as flight commander with Royal Air Force 65 Squadron flying the Hawker Hunter. In 1963, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, he was assigned as the Air Liaison Officer to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division, with equipment loaded on LSTs ready to invade Cuba. During Vietnam, 1966. he was Commander of the 391st Tactical Flight Squadron equipped with Phantom F-4's. From 1969 through 1973, he served as: Chief, Operational Readiness Inspection Team, USAFE; Commander, 86th Tactical Fighter Wing, Germany and Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force staff officer in Izmir, Turkey. Colonel Doerty retired from the Air Force in 1975 and lived in Colorado until 1993. He was co-founder and principal operator of Trans-Colorado Airlines for three years. Currently, he lives in Tucson, Arizona and enjoys traveling and fishing throughout the United States.
Roy K. Flint, Brigadier General, U.S. Army, Retired, graduated from the University of Michigan in 1950 and enlisted in the Army when the Korean War broke out. He graduated from the Infantry Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning, Georgia a year and a half later. He spent a year with the 2nd Infantry Division in Korea, and thenmoved to Hawaii with the 25th Infantry Division. Flint subsequently served with the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. In 1968, he rejoined the 25th Infantry Division, this time in Vietnam, wher he commanded the 3rd Battalion, 22nd Infantry Division during the Test Offensive. In Vietnam, he also served as Executive Officer to the Deputy Commanding General. For service in combat, he was awarded the Silver Star, Bronze Star, and the Distinguished Flying Cross. During his service, Flint received an M.A. from the University of Alabama and a Ph.D. from Duke University. In 1972, he became an associate professor of the Military History Division at the U.S. Military Academy. From 1981-85, he served as Professor and Head of the Department of History, and on August 1, 1985, General Flint became Dean of the Academic Board. His military education includes attendance at the Army Command and General Staff College, the British Staff College, the Armed Forces Staff College, and the Air War College. Upon retirement from the Army at the end of June 1990, General Flint settled in North Carolina, where he now teaches history at Lees-McRae College.
Henry G. Gole, Colonel, U.S. Army Special Forces, Retired, served as a rifleman, BAR man, and sergeant in C Company of the 27th Infantry (Wolfhound) Regiment in the Korean War and served two Special Forces combat tours in Vietnam. He served in various assignments in Germany, including duty as an attache` in the American Embassy, Bonn. He was a Research Analyst at the Strategic Studies Institute and an instructor in the Department of National Security and Strategy of the U.S. Army War College. He served in the Pentagon as a Special Assistant for the Modern Volunteer Army, Office of the Chief of Staff, Army. Gole has a Ph.D. in history and has taught at the University of Maryland, the United States Military Academy, Franklin and Marshall College, Dickinson College, and the U.S. Army War College. Colonel Gole has over thirty published articles, numerous book reviews, and recently completed a novel. He teaches a course of his design at the U.S. Army War College called “Men in Battle: The Human Dimension of Warfare.” In September, 1998, he was a speaker on the Korean War at the annual military history conference sponsored by the University of North Texas and in March, 1999, he spoke at the Cantigny Conference on Korea, 1950-1953. More recently he presented Korean War papers at Quantico and the Virginia Military Institute. Currently, Colonel Gole resides in Mechanicsburg, PA where writes, edits, consults, and teaches.
Hermes C. Grillo, M.D., is a native of Boston, Massachusetts (1923), a graduate of Brown University (1944), and Harvard Medical School (1947). He had completed three and a half years of surgical residency at Massachusetts General Hospital when he joined the Navy in early 1951. He was the surgeon in “Dog Company”, 1st Medical Battalion, First Marine Division for the rest of the year. Company D functioned as a mini-MASH , giving definitive surgical care to one regiment of U.S. Marines and one of Korean Marines (KMC), plus everyone else brought to “Dog”! This was followed by a year in Thoracic Surgery at U.S.N.H., St. Albans, New York. After returning to Boston Dr. Grillo completed surgical training, joined the MGH staff – becoming Visiting Surgeon and Chief of General Thoracic Surgery (now Emeritus). His principal professional interest was development of tracheal surgery. He is Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Grillo’s publications number more than 300.
Todd Groce is executive director of the Georgia Historical Society in Savannah. Dr. Groce was born in Virginia and grew up in Memphis. He holds three degrees in History, including a Ph.D. from the University of Tennessee. Before coming to the Georgia Historical Society in 1995, Dr. Groce taught history for three years at the University of Tennessee and then served five years as executive director of the East Tennessee Historical Society in Knoxville. He is the author of Mountain Rebels: East Tennessee Confederates and the Civil War, published in 1999 by the University of Tennessee Press. He has also written articles and book reviews and publications such as Civil War History, North and South Magazine, and The Encyclopedia of the Confederacy. In 1997 and again in 1999, Dr. Groce was appointed to the Georgia Civil War Commission by House Speaker Tom Murphy. He frequently lectures on the South and has made national television appearances on the Discovery Channel and on C-SPAN’s Book TV.
Alexander M. Haig, General, U.S. Army, Retired, and former Secretary of State, served in a variety of military assignments during his career, including Japan, Korea, Europe, and Vietnam. While serving as military assistant and Aide de Camp to Major General Edmond M. Almond, then Chief of Staff to General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander Allied Powers (SCAP) in Japan, then First Lieutenant Haig was the Tokyo headquarters’ Duty Officer on Sunday morning June 25, 1950 when the Korean War Began. It was Lt. Haig who took the telephone call to General MacArthur from John L Muccio, the American Ambassador in Seoul informing the Command of the North Korean attack. Lt. Haig continued in service as Aide de Camp to Major General Almond for the next eleven months participating in five of the campaigns of the Korean War, including the Inchon landing and the battles around Chosin Reservoir. In August, 1950, he was detailed to Major General Eugene P. Fox, MacArthur’s Chief of Staff for SCAP to survey Taiwan’s needs to enable Chinese Nationalists forces to prevent the capture of Taiwan by forces of Mainland China. Haig participated in the meetings with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. And on August 23, 1950, he assisted in the meeting at MacArthur’s headquarters in Tokyo at which the General announced to the naysayers of the Joint Chiefs that he would land at Inchon on September 15, 1950. When Almond took command of X Corps (First Marine Division and 7th Infantry Division) Lt. Haig continued as his Aide despite pleas to be transferred back to the First Calvary Division or to a line division as a platoon leader. He participated in the Inchon landing, the battles to liberate Seoul and advance against heavy enemy opposition to the 38th Parallel and the Yalu River. Haig was with MacArthur and Almond in Seoul on September 29 when MacArthur restored South Korea’s President Syngman Rhee and his government in the capital. He was at the Chosin Reservoir when the battlefield turned with the Chinese attacks on the First Marine Division and elements of the U.S. 7th Infantry Division. Then Captain Haig was at Koto-ri and at Hungnam when the last soldier embarked on Sunday, December 24, 1950 as the 300-mile retreat ensued. Haig remained with General Almond for the next six months as U.S. and United Nations forces returned to the offensive and drove the North Koreans and Chinese back to the 38th Parallel. In late May, 1951, Haig finally got his transfer to a smaller unit. He was assigned as S-3 of Task Force Yoke, whose mission was to seize the road junction at Habae-jao on the eastern front. Recommended for early promotion to major and subsequently designated to be a battalion executive officer with the 38th Infantry Division, destiny intervened, Haig’s replacement as Almond’s aide was killed in action and he was recalled to his old job as assistant to General Almond. But, suffering for weeks from an advanced case of hepatitis incurred at Task Force Yoke, he was medically evacuated to Japan, thus ending his combat service in Korea. For his service in five campaigns during the Korean War, including the Inchon landing, Haig was awarded two Silver Stars for gallantry in actions, the Bronze Star medal with “V” service for heroic action in connection with military operations, and four Air Medals.
Gail S. Halvorsen joined the United States Army Air Corps in 1942. He attended pilot training with the Royal Air Force, after which he returned to the Army Air Corps and was assigned flight duty in foreign transport operations in the South Atlantic Theater. After the end of WWII, he flew in the Berlin Airlift, where he became known as “Uncle Wiggly Wings,” the “Chocolate Flyer,” and the “Berlin Candy Bomber.” Halvorsen received his Bachelor and Masters degrees in Aeronautical Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology in 1952. From 1952 to 1970, he carried out research and development duties with Air Force Systems Command in aircraft and, beginning in 1958, research and development and operational duties in the Air Force Space Program. Colonel Halvorsen served as the Commander of Tempelhof Central Airport in Berlin and as the Air force Representative of Berlin. He earned a Masters degree in Counseling and Guidance in 1973. When he retired from the Air Force in 1974, Halvorsen had over 8000 flying hours and had earned several standard decorations. From 1976 to 1986, he was the Assistant Dean of Student Life at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. His book, The Berlin Candy Bomber, is in the second printing.
William Hammond, PhD, is a senior historian with the U.S. Army's Center of Military History. His published works include two volumes in the Army's history of the Vietnam War titled Public Affairs, The Military and the Media. The first covers the years from 1962 to 1968, the second from 1968 to 1973. In addition to numerous other publications, he has coauthored Black Soldier, White Army: The 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea and is the author of Reporting Vietnam, Media and Military at War (1998). Reporting Vietnam won the Organization of American Historians' Richard W. Leopold Award for the year 2000. Dr. Hammond was the recipient of a research fellowship from Harvard University's Joan Shorenstein Center for the Press and Public Policy during 1999. He doubles as a Professor in University Honors at the University of Maryland, College Park, where he teaches courses on both the history of the news media and the Vietnam War.
Joyce Harrison is an acquisitions editor at the University of Tennessee Press. She has worked as an editor for thirteen years, first at the University of Michigan Press and then at eh University of South Carolina Press. At UT Press, where she has been employed since 1997, she is responsible for overseeing the Press’s editorial program, which includes books in history, religious studies, literary studies, architecture, and other fields, and books about Tennessee, Appalachia, and the South.
Sergei N. Khrushchev is a senior research fellow at the Thomas J. Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University and son of the late Soviet Prime Minister, Nikita Khrushchev. A senior fellow since 1996, he writes extensively about the history of the Cold War and the turning points in relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union in the Khrushchev, Eisenhower, and Kennedy periods. In addition, his research focuses on the former Soviet Union’s transition from a centralized to a decentralized society, as well as its transformation from a central to a market economy and its international security during this transition. From 1958-1968, Dr. Khrushchev participated in the Soviet missile and space program, including work on cruise missiles for submarines, military and research spacecraft, moon vehicles, and the “Proton,” the world’s largest space booster. He also served at the Control Computer Institute in Moscow, 1968-1991. He is the editor of his father’s memoirs, Khrushchev Remembers (1970), and has also authored Khrushchev on Khrushchev (1990), Nikita Khrushchev: Crisis and Missiles (1994), The Political Economy of Russian Fragmentation (1993), and Three Circles of Russian Market Reforms (1995). His books are published around the world in 12 languages. Dr. Khrushchev’s most recent book, Nikita Khrushchev and the Creation of a Super Power, was published in April, 2000. Currently, he is working on an English translation of his father’s memoirs and on his own new book, Nikita Khrushchev’s Reforms.
Manfred Knopf was born in Berlin, Germany on March 24, 1935. He was 10 years of age when World War II ended. At the time the Soviet Blockade of Berlin began, in 1948, the city was in ruins and the Russians had claimed the city of Berlin. Mr. Knopf was 13 years old, hungry and scared when the Airlift started and he says there was “life in the sky over Berlin” as the planes flew in to deliver food and supplies, which saved the city from starvation. For Mr. Knopf and many other Germans, the Berlin Allied Airlift also saved Berlin and Germany from Communism.
Rose Marie Knopf came to Berlin from occupied Poland, the city of Breslau, where she was born in June, 1937. Her family united in Berlin after the war to build a new life together.
Rosemary Bryant Mariner joined the Naval service after being selected as one of the first eight women to enter military pilot training. Designated a naval Aviator in June 1974, she became the first female military aviator to fly tactical jet aircraft, the A-4E/L Skyhawk, in 1975. The following year Mariner converted to the A-7E Corsair II, again becoming the first woman to fly a front-line light attack aircraft. She was the first military woman to command an operational aviation squadron and was selected for major aviation shore command. During DESERT STORM, she commanded Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron Thirty Four. During her twenty-four years of military service, CAPT Mariner logged over 3500 military flight hours in fifteen different naval aircraft and made seventeen carrier landings. In 1997, Mariner retired as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) Professor of Military Studies for the National War College. Several books and publications have profiled her life, including Crossed Currents: Navy Women from WWI to Tailhook, Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution, Tailspin, Ground Zero: The Gender Wars in the Military, The Los Angeles Times, and The Wall Street Journal.
Alan Marsh served six years, 1992-1998, as a Park Ranger at the Andersonville National Historic Site. In 1998, he became the Cultural Resources Program Manager for both Andersonville and Jimmy Carter National Historic Sites. Alan is responsible for the Andersonville Oral History Institute which has recorded over 800 interviews with former prisoners of war. He conducts tours of the historic sites, including detail staff rides for military personnel and living history programs in which he portrays either a Union prisoner of war or Confederate Guard. Alan has written numerous items for park interpretive publications and museum exhibits. He is the author of Andersonville: The Story Behind the Scenery (KC Publications, 2000), “Black Labor and Archaeology of the Swift Creek Site,” A Culture Engraved (University of Alabama Press, 1999), and the Administrative History of Ocmulgee National Monument (National Park Service, 1986).
Curtis J. Morrow at age 17 (1950) enlisted in the U.S. Army; on completion of basic training was sent to Fort Belvoir Virginia for demolition training. During that training he learned of the so-called police action taking place in Korean, and like many other young troopers, cut short his training by volunteering for combat duty there. On December 4, Mr. Morrow was assigned to the 24th Infantry Regiment Combat Team as a rifleman where he served for nine months. Twice wounded, he was awarded the Bronze Star, Combat Infantry Badge, and four Battle Stars. His last two and a half years was served in Kyushu Japan, with the 8081st, Airborne & Packing Company, of the 187th RCT. There he attended jump-school and became a Paratrooper. In 1954 Mr. Morrow was honorably discharged from the US Army. He now speaks at schools and is frequently a guest on radio talk shows and occasionally, television. He is also a founding member of the 24th Infantry Regiment Association of Illinois. A member of the Veteran of Foreign Wars, the Korean War Veterans Association and the American-Legion. He's very active in promoting the history of African-American participation in the military history of America; and have had several articles published in Chicago's newspaper. At present Mr. Morrow is working on children stories, using African mythology; and promoting his two publishes books, What’s a Commie Ever Done to Black People? and Return of The African American (a memoir of his eleven years in Ghana West-Africa). While there (1966) he was adopted by an Ashanti-Paramount Chief and bestowed the name of "Achampong." and thereafter called, “Kojo Achampong.”
Jerome ‘Jerry’ H. Morton was born in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1942, to a career Coast Guard family who moved around the Great Lakes region and the Ohio/Mississippi River system during his childhood. Within a week of completing his course work for an MS degree in school psychology in August, 1966, he began experiencing life as a private in the army. He has written a book, Make Way: Senior Candidate in the Hallway, that provides a somewhat humorous account of his basic training, advanced infantry training and infantry officer school training. Commissioned as a second lieutenant in the infantry, June, 1967, he was immediately assigned as a psychology instructor with the Psychological Warfare School, JFK Special Warfare Center, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina. He completed his two year military obligation there as the senior psychology instructor. Upon leaving the army in June, 1969, he began working as a school psychologist in black schools being integrated for the first time. In 1973, he earned a Ph.D. in school psychology. His army experience focused his professional career on being a facilitator for institutional change in education and in reducing the emotional stress that change sometimes produces. He has written on this process in professional journals and book chapters and has co-authored a book, A School for Healing: Alternative Strategies for Teaching At-Risk Students, that addresses the topic. Currently, he is the executive director of an educational cooperative and an adjunct associate professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
William K. ‘Bill’ Norwood was born on May 31st, 1930, at Benton, Tennessee as the eldest son of a sharecropper and lumberjack father. Bill enlisted in the U.S. Army at a very young age to supplement the family income of a widowed mother and two young siblings. Bill arrived in Korea in 1950 soon after the outbreak of the Korean War as a replacement assigned to the 24th Infantry Division. Bill was taken prisoner of war in April, 1951, during the Chinese spring offensive. He was released in August, 1953, during the Operation Big Switch POW exchange. His military decorations include the POW medal, Good Conduct Medal, National Defense Medal, Korean Service Medal with ten battle stars, UN Service Medal, and the South Korean Service Medal. Bill is the Founder of the Korean War Ex-POW Association and served ten years as the organization’s president. Presently, Bill Norwood is retired and lives in Cleveland, Tennessee with his wife of 47 years, Elizabeth. He is active in promoting patriotism, loyalty, and respect for the American Flag through lectures at various schools and other events throughout the area to emphasize that “Freedom is not Free.”
David M. Oshinsky received his undergraduate degree form Cornell University and his doctorate from Brandeis. He has taught history for the past 28 years at Rutgers University, where he is the Board of Governors Professor of History. He won the University’s Distinguished Teaching Award in 1987. Professor Oshinsky specializes in Modern American History, with an emphasis on the Cold War, the Civil Rights Movement, and the American South. He is the author of five books, including A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy (1983), which was voted one of the year’s “best books” by the “New York Sunday Times Book Review,” and won the Hardeman Prize for the best work about the U.S. Congress. His latest book, “Worse Than Slavery”: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice, (1996) won both the Robert Kennedy Book Award for the year’s most distinguished contribution to the field of human rights, and the American Bar Association’s Scribes Award for excellence in legal writing. It also was voted one of the “notable books” of 1996 by the “New York Sunday Times Book Review.” Professor Oshinsky is a regular contributor to scholarly journals, to the Washington Post Book World, New Sunday Times Book Review, New York Times Op-Ed Page, New York Sunday Times Magazine, New York Times Circuits Section, and New York Times Arts and Ideas page. He spent the academic year 1999-2000 as a visiting Distinguished Phi Beta Kappa Scholar.
Joseph R. Owen was born in Utica, New York in November, 1924. He attended Christian Brothers Academy in Syracuse and later Syracuse University, College of Forestry, 1942-1943, before joining the U.S. Marine Corps in 1943. Mr. Owen served in the Pacific Theater as a Forward Observer Squad Leader in 1944 and went on as an Officer Candidate in the V-12 College Training Program, 1945-46, and graduated from Colgate University in 1948. Following Officers’ Basic School, 1948-49, Owen commanded a rifle platoon and an 81mm mortar platoon of the 2nd Marine Division. During the Korean War in 1950, he commanded the mortars and rifle platoon in Baker, 1/7, one of the rifle companies that spearheaded the breakout form Chosin Reservoir. Lieutenant Owen was wounded and spent the next two years in a U.S. Naval hospital before receiving a disability retirement in May 1952. Owen has been active in Baker, 1/7, reunions and has written articles on the company’s wartime experiences for the Marine Corps Gazette and short stories for Leatherneck Magazine. In 1996, his book Colder Than Hell was published by Naval Institute Press. In it he relates firsthand how the hastily assembled mix of some two hundred regulars and raw reservists hardened in to a superb Marine rifle company. Mr. Owen is now retired from a successful marketing business and lives with his wife Dorothy in New York and Florida.
John W. Patrick, Jr., Colonel, U.S. Army, Retired, was born in 1924 in Highland Park, Michigan. He was drafted into the U.S. Army in April, 1943 while attending Wayne University in Detriot. Following basic training at Camp Wolters, Texas, he attended Infantry Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning, Georgia and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in February, 1944 at age 19. Overseas assignments included two tours in Korea followed by Germany, Taiwan, France, Vietnam, and Hawaii for a total of 16 years. Major assignments included rifle and heavy weapons company commander, Infantry School Instructor, Division Operations Officer, Corps Operations Officer, Division G-3, Land Central Maneuver Director (NATO), Senior Advisor-Tan Son Nhut Sensitive Area Vietnam, and Inspector General-U.S. Army Pacific. Colonel Patrick was the last Army Officer to receive an allocation and authorization to expend a low yield nuclear weapon. Some of his awards and decorations include the Expert Infantry Badge, Legion of Merit, Army and Air Force Commendation Medals, Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Gold Star, Vietnam Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, and Vietnam Armed Forces Honor Medal. Colonel Patrick retired in 1975 and moved with his wife Barbara to Sevier County, Tennessee.
G. Kurt Piehler is an Assistant Professor of History at the University of Tennessee who focuses on war, peace, and American society. Dr. Piehler is the Director of the Center for the Study of War and Society. He is the author of Remembering War the American Way and co-editor of Major Problems in American Military History. He is also the consulting editor for the Oxford Companion to Military History. Currently, Dr. Piehler is working on a book-length study that will examine the impact of the Second World War and the G.I. Bill on American society.
Francis Gary Powers, Jr. was born on June 5, 1965, in Burbank, California. He is the son of Francis Gary and Claudia E. “Sue” Powers. Gary holds a B.A. Degree in Philosophy form California State University, Los Angeles and a Master’s Degree in Public Administration / Non-profit Management form George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. In 1996, he founded the Cold War Museum, which conducts a “Spy Tour” of Washington D.C. and hosts a traveling exhibit that displays historical artifacts associated with the U-2 Incident of May, 1960. The traveling exhibit promotes interest in the creation of a permanent Cold War Museum, which will exhibit artifacts associated with various Cold War events and activities. The mobile exhibit has been displayed at many locations around the United States.
Eric Reinert began working for the National Park Service in 1995 as the Museum Technician for Manhattan Sites, a collection of six historic sites in New York City under one administrative unit. In July 1997, he took the Museum Technician position at Andersonville National Historic Site where he helped to complete and open the National Prisoner of War Museum in April, 1998. He became responsible for a fast-growing collection of Prisoner of War artifacts that was moved to a new storage facility under his supervision. He also worked with the Interpretation Division on a variety of projects and temporary exhibits, as well as handled a large number of research requests. In December, 1999, he was promoted to Curator for Andersonville National Historic Site, a position he currently occupies.
Lyle Rishell entered the U.S. Army from Pennsylvania in late 1944 at the age of 17 and retired in 1967. During that time he attended various military schools and received both undergraduate and graduate degrees. Since retirement he has managed four companies, served as a professor at two universities, and written seven books, three of which have been published. His first book, With a Black Platoon in Combat, is a story of his year in Korea with the 24th Infantry RCT, the last segregated regiment in the U.S. Army. His overseas assignments also included Japan, Germany, Libya. Colonel Rishell’s decorations and awards included five battle stars, the Silver Star, the Legion of Merit, and two Purple Hearts. He also wears the Combat Infantry Badge and Parachutist Badge. During his career he served on the Army General Staff in the areas of Intelligence, Military Operations, Research and Development, and Personnel. He taught at both the American University as an Adjunct Professor of Marketing for a period of five years in the early 70's and as a Professor of International Business for 17 years at George Mason University. He developed a passion for traveling and during his careers he lived in or visited more than 70 countries.
Charles Snelling Robinson reported for active duty with the USS Cotten (DD669) as a newly commissioned ensign in the US Naval Reserve in June, 1943, just after receiving a BA in English from Harvard University. He served aboard the destroyer continuously until April, 1946, as navigator for the final sixteen months. During the overall period, the Cotten was attached to the 3rd and 5th Fleets of the US Pacific Fleet, participating in nine major operations and two major fleet actions (Battles of the Philippine sea and Leyte Gulf). After the end of the war the Cotten was attached to the Occupation Forces for the first three moths following Japan’s surrender. Robinson remained in the US Naval Reserve (Inactive) until 1964, retiring with the rank of Lieutenant commander. E bean a business career with Sudler and Company, a real estate firm in Chicago, in the fall of 1946. He served as a partner in the company from 1954 until 1978, and then served as President from 1978 until his retirement in 1985. Mr. Robinson is the author of 200,000 Miles aboard the Destroyer Cotten.
Walter M. Schirra, one of America’s original Mercury Seven astronauts, is the only one who flew in all three of the nation’s pioneering space programs, Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. He was born in Hackensack, New Jersey on March 12, 1923. He graduated form the United States Naval Academy in 1945 and from Naval Flight Training at Pensacola Naval Air Station, Florida. in 1947. He served as a carrier-based fighter pilot and operations officer and then attended the Naval Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland. During the Korean War he flew F-86 Sabre Jets as an exchange pilot with the U.S. Air Force. Schirra was selected by NASA as one of the original seven Mercury astronauts in 1959. He flew on the fifth Project Mercury flight, orbiting the earth in his Sigma 7 capsule six times in 9 hours, 13 minutes on October 3, 1962. He conducted experiments and snapped hundreds of pictures of earth and space phenomena. Schirra commanded the Gemini 6, flying with Tom Stafford. The were to have tracked down and docked with the Agena satellite, but the Agena exploded after liftoff on October 25, 1965. The flight plan was changed, calling for Gemini 6 to rendezvous with Gemini 7, a 14-day flighty manned by Frank Borman and James Lovell. Gemini 7 was launched December 4, 1965. Gemini 6 was to take off December 12, but was aborted when the Titan 2 booster rocket engine shut down after ignition. Three days later, Schirra and Stafford were launched. they caught up with Gemini 7, flew formation with it, as close as one foot, for five hours before separating and returning to earth the next day. Schirra was back in space again on October 11, 1968, as commander of Apollo 7, the first manned flight of the Apollo craft designed to carry astronauts to the moon. During 11 days in earth orbit, he and crewmates Walt Cunningham and Donn Eisele successfully checked all the Apollo systems, qualifying the spacecraft for moon missions. Captain Schirra retired from the Navy and NASA in 1969 to enter the business world. He served as an officer an director of several companies and eventually formed his own consultant company, Schirra Enterprises. He was inducted into the Astronaut Hall of Fame on May 11, 1990. Currently, he and his wife, Josephine, live in Rancho Santa Fe, California.
William “Bill” Schmidt, National Commander, American Ex-Prisoners of War, enlisted in the Army Specialized Training Reserve Program while attending Indiana University following his graduation from Youngstown-Rayen in 1943. He began infantry basic training in 1944 at Fort Benning, and upon completion was sent to Fort Bragg, 100th Division. His unit shipped out in October and went on line in the Seventh Army sector with the 399th Regiment, Company E. Bill was a Private First Class. For several months, Bill and his squad advanced toward the Maginot line when they were taken captive by the German counteroffensive “Operation Northwind” on January 1st in a blockhouse near Bitche. Bill was transported back to a labor camp south of Dresden in four stages on a boxcar. Most notable was the 90 men in the car that first night, the allied bombing daylight raid on the Hamburg rail-yards, and the third leg of the trip. He was in one of the 13 labor camps of IVA near Bad Shandau/Elbe doing pick and shovel work on the standard scanty rations. Toward the end of April he collapsed at morning roll call and wound up in the camp hospital, which was nothing more than a number of straw pallets on the floor of a small barracks. As the Russians approached the Elbe River, the camp was evacuated and it was every man for himself. Bill, however, was taken by stretcher to a house on the west bank by some fellow prisoners where he was liberated two days later. At the war’s end, Bill was in U.S. Army hospitals from May to December and was given an Honorable Discharge on December 17, 1945. Through the G.I. Bill, he received College and Seminary Education, and was ordained in 1952. He served in 6 congregations during a ministry of 38 years. Bill became a Life Member of the American Ex-Prisoners of War and a Charter Member of the Fairfield Barbed Wire Chapter in Ohio in 1980. He has served as Chapter Commander of the Mid-South Chapter (TN) and Ohio Chapter No. One. He has attended 11 National Conventions since 1986 and is currently serving his 5th year as a National Director. Bill’s message to the future generations: “The image of freedom and future purpose under God will give one hope to stay alive in very adverse conditions.”
Edwin H. Simmons, Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps, Retired, is a veteran of three wars, World War II in the Pacific, Korea, and Vietnam. As a 29-year-old major in command of Weapons Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, Edwin Howard Simmons served at Hagaru-ri during the Chosin Reservoir campaign. He landed with his company across Blue Beach Two at Inchon and continued as weapons commander through the re-capture of Seoul, the landing at Wonsan, the epic Chosin Reservoir break-out, and for most of the Spring 1951 offensives and counter-offensives. By May, through attrition of more senior officers, he was the executive officer and sometimes acting commander of the battalion. He left Korea in late June after being slightly wounded at the edge of the Punchbowl. His 14 military decorations include the Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, three Legions of Merit with Combat V, two Bronze Stars with Combat V, and a Purple Heart. In 1972, General Simmons began serving as Director of Marine Corps History and Museums. He held this position for 24 years, six years in uniform and 18 years as a civil servant. June, 2000 saw the publication of his Korean War novel, Dog Company Six, which received the Samuel Eliot Morison Award for Naval Literature. Another recent publication is his 68-page pamphlet history Over the Sea Wall: U.S. Marines at Inchon. Two other works, both published in 1998, are the third revised edition of his The United States Marines: A History and a large-format “coffee table” book, The Marines. Currently, General Simmons is working on a book-length history of the Marines in the First World War.
Douglas W. Simon is a professor of political science at Drew University, specializing in international affairs, United States foreign policy, international organization, and national security. He received his B.A. from Willamette University in 1963 and his Ph.D. from the University of Oregon in 1971. Prior to entering graduate school, he served in U.S. Air Force Intelligence, including a tour in Vietnam in 1965-66. At Drew he directed the university’s Semester on the United Nations for fifteen years and then served a five-year term as Convener of Drew’s Masters in International Affairs Program. In 1991 he was the first recipient of Drew’s Presidential Distinguished Teaching Award and that same year received the Sears outstanding Educator Award. He is the co-author of two books, The New World of Politics and New Thinking and Developments in International Politics. He has contributed to such publications as the Harvard Journal of World Affairs, East Asian Survey, Comparative Political Studies, International Studies Notes, Teaching Political Science, and Society.
Samuel J. Smith, Sr., Warriors Leader, was born on March 22, 1925 in Cornfields, Arizona. He joined the U.S. Marine Corps in the summer of 1943 by claiming he was born in 1924. Smith was placed with the Navajo Code Communications Section at Camp Pendleton, California and then served with the 4th Signal Company, 4th Marine Division as a Navajo Code Talker. Mr. Smith survived combat on the Marshall Islands, Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo Jima. He also taught the code to new code talkers arriving at the Headquarters in Maui, Hawaii. He currently lives in New Mexico.
Kathryn Weathersby is currently a research scholar with the Cold War International History Project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. Dr. Weathersby received a Ph.D. in modern Russian history from Indiana University (1990), with a second field in modern East Asian history. From 1989 to 1995 Dr. Weathersby was Assistant Professor of history at Florida State University. Since 1991 she has conducted extensive research in Russian archives on the Soviet Union’s role in the Korean War and its policy toward Korea prior to the war. She has lectured widely on this subject in North America, East Asia, and Europe. Her publications include: “Stalin, Mao and the End of the Korean War,” in Odd Arne Westad, ed., Brothers in Arms: The Rise and Fall of Sino-Soviet Alliance (Stanford University Press, 1998); “Deceiving the Deceivers: Moscow, Beijing, Pyongyang and the Allegations of Bacteriological Weapons Use in Korea,” Bulletin of the cold War International History Project 6/7 (1996); “To Attack or Not to Attack? Stalin, Kim Il Sung and the Prelude to War,” Bulletin of the Cold War International History Project 5 (1995); and “Soviet Aims in Korea and the Origins of the Korean War, 1945-1950: New Evidence from Russian Archives,” Working Paper No. 8, Cold War International History Project, 1993. “Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Case of Korea,” in Melvin Goodman, ed. Perceptions and Misperceptions in the Cold War is soon to be published and her work in progress is Stalin’s Last War: The Soviet Union and Korea, 1945-1953.

Roger E. Wilcox, M.D., was raised and schooled in a small Montana town where his father was a country doctor. He is a graduate of the University of Montana and Infantry ROTC. He left the Infantry in 1944 for Harvard Medical School, from which he graduated in 1948. Dr. Wilcox went on for training at Massachusetts General Hospital Surgical Service, 1948-1951, 1953-1957. He served from 1951 to1953, during the Korean War, as an Army surgeon in Japan, 279th General Hospital, and 15 months as surgeon at 8063rd MASH. Dr. Wilcox gained extensive experience in abdominal, vascular, and chest wounds. He later served as chief surgeon at United Mine Workers Hospital in Beckley, West Virginia from 1957 to 1964. During this time, he set up an accepted five year surgical residency program and was involved in the first “Black Lung” studies. In Phoenix, Arizona, since 1964, Dr. Wilcox has been practicing and teaching General, Vascular, and General Thoracic Surgery at the VA, county, and local hospitals. He retired in 1998.
W. Lewis Wood was born November 15, 1925, in Starkville, Mississippi. He completed grade school and graduated from Central High School in Memphis before enrolling at the University of Tennessee in June 1943 as an engineering major. Mr. Wood joined the U.S. Navy in March, 1944, during World War II and became proficient in airborne electronics while serving with Navy Aviation Squadron VF-20 and Carrier Aircraft Service Unit CASU 67. Following WWII he reentered UT College of Engineering. Mr. Wood graduated with a BS degree in electrical engineering and was commissioned as 2nd Lt. following completion of Advanced ROTC. At the outbreak of the Korean War, he returned to active duty and served as platoon leader and company commander, “B” Co., 179th Infantry Regiment. He holds the Victory Medal and Good Conduct Medals for service in WWII along with the Combat Infantry Badge and Bronze Star with “V” device for Valor in Korea. Mr. Wood went on to work as an electrical engineer in the utility and industrial field and as a consulting engineer and executive with Allen & Hoshall engineers for 40 years before he retired in 1991.
Larry Zeigler, was born in 1931 in New Cumberland, Pennsylvania. He attended public schools there and graduated in 1949 from New Cumberland High School. Mr. Zeigler enlisted in the U.S. Navy on April 6, 1951, volunteering for the High School Air Recruit Program. Essentially, this meant that he would be trained in one of the enlisted rates in Naval aviation. Following AN(P) school in Jacksonville, Florida he attended Parachute Rigger’s school in Lakehurst, New Jersey. After completing P.R. school in 1952 Zeigler was assigned to the Naval Air Station, VR3, Moffett Field, California. Shortly after arriving at Moffett field he volunteered for Flight Attendant duty with the Military Air Transport Service (MATS). In this assignment, cargo and/or military personnel was frequently flown to Japan and returned with an air evacuation mission to Hawaii and the United States. In 1954, he was transferred to the USS Yorktown CV-10 and served aboard for an eight-month cruise that included 7th Fleet service during the Tachen evacuations. Following discharge in 1955 Mr. Zeigler attended college in preparation for a career in teaching, which had been stimulated in part by his experience as a Flight Attendant instructor during his last six months of duty with MATS. He is retired Professor Emeritus from Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland, currently resides in New Freedom, Pennsylvania and has four children and 12 grandchildren.
Larry Zellers, U.S. Air Force, Retired, grew up in rural Weatherford, Texas. Following his graduation from Weatherford High School and Weatherford Junior College, the later in 1942, he and millions of other young men went marching off to World War II. He served in England as an airborne radio operator aboard a C-87 type aircraft. The mission was the delivery of cargo to Africa and Italy. Following his discharge from service, he completed his education and in 1948 volunteered as a teacher in South Korea under the auspices of the Methodist Church. When the North Korean Communists attacked South Korea on June 25, 1950, he was captured and taken to North Korea and imprisoned with American military prisoners for three years. After his release, and more study at Drew University, he volunteered as a Chaplain in the United States Air Force, from which he retired in 1975. The story of his imprisonment, In Enemy Hands: A Prisoner in North Korea, was published by University of Kentucky Press (1999).